Destiny, determined by prior karmas, depends on perception, action
Classical Yoga serves the three “spiritual” dimensions of embodiment—adhibhautika (five elements within), adhidaivika (inner celestial forces), and adhyatmika (Self).
Japa nourishes and purifies the subtle body just as food and medicine nourish the gross body. Nama japa includes chanting OM, and requires no prerequisite.
Dhyana pacifies the causes of suffering, purifies chitta, & normalizes a disorganized mind. Sages used meditation & dhyana to attain jnana (spiritual knowledge).
Manas is an object, the visible “tip of the iceberg of chitta.” Mental vrttis refer to external objects. Mano vrtti nirodha is the gateway to chitta vrtti nirodha.