Lesson 33: Online Education in Yoga by Sri Prashant S Iyengar recorded 8-15-20
Breath Processed in the Nostrils
In the last session I mentioned about the nostrils…. I will give you a taste… of this marvelous organ. Anatomy and physiology have not thought of the nostrils as wonderful organs. I mentioned in an earlier session that the nostrils are presided over by the Ashvini Kumaras…, the divine physicians of the gods.
I mentioned in a previous session that the processing of the breath in the nostrils is a great marvel. Whatever the outside temperature, weather, or climate, the breath is processed in a split second to become [suitable] for the lungs. The breath is [warmed] to the body temperature… in a split second even if the temperature outside is below zero….
When we consume food, although digestion is furthered by salivation, we don’t digest it entirely in the mouth. We are told to keep the food in the mouth as long as is needed to introduce saliva while chewing. Here, the breath is processed so that it may be taken up by the lungs as a nutrient. A lot of the processing takes place in the nostrils. We don’t consider the inside of the nose — other to clean it once a day — as important as the cosmetic appearance of outer part that is visible.
I want you to experience how marvelous the organ is. Therefore, I suggest you settle down in Savasana. I will illustrate, and have you experience, how the nostrils play an enormous role in pranayamic breathing.
It’s almost like how a musical… instrument becomes a marvel in the hands of a maestro. His playing demonstrates the value of the instrument, as opposed to keeping it in its case…. Although it may sound horrible when played by an amateur, the instrument itself is not horrible. The player is horrible.
The nostril, with the celestial forces participating within it, is a marvel in the pranayamic process. Therefore, we will try to understand what the nose and nostrils are in the pranayamic process. Even the common man can experience that.
Pranayama—Music of the Breath in Savasana +6.20
Therefore, settle down in Savasana. In consumerist pranayama, we are only aware of the breath passing in and out, through the nostrils. That has become today’s yoga [mockingly]: “If you just become aware of your breath, coming in and going out through the nostrils….” It has even become a matter for neo-meditation….
That’s all we know about the breath: Sensing the breath in the nostrils can condition the mind….
Start sensing the breath in the nostrils while in Savasana. You can be in any supine position that is relaxed — Supta Virasana, Matsyasana, Supta Baddha Konasana, or in plain Savasana. Or you could just be sitting quietly in a posture that you are able to hold for quiet a while.
Become breath-aware, breath sensitive. Watch the breath. Observe the breath… . Become sensitized to the breath and breathing. Start feeling the breath in your nostrils: how is the breath is coming in and going out? In neo-pranayama, that breath is merely made a little slower, deeper…, gentler and a little deeper. It works as a marvelous mind conditioner. If you are just aware of the breath in the nostrils, it will significantly quieten… and compose the mind. The mind is sublimated by becoming breath aware.
It can’t be done for too long. How long are you going to observe the breath if it is just gently moving in and out?
In pranayama we will start playing the music of the breath. Sonorous music is played with multiple notes in a [sequence], with a [theme]…. The nostrils are not just a passage for the in-breath and out-breath. Watching, voluntarily make your breath more tender, softer, and a little deeper as well. Also use will and volition.
Slow, soft, thin, rarefied, deeper. Focusing on the in-breath, leave the exhalation in the background. Work on the inhalation and let the exhalation react. Watch your inhalation. You may feel that your inhalations do not vary much…, but there are variations that remain unnoticed.
Nasal Anatomy +10.55
There are various parts of the nostrils. The membrane is the outer side of the nostril. Insert your right index finger in the right nostril, with the finger turned out, towards the right. The fingertip touches the membrane [carpet] of the nostril.
If you turn the index finger in, towards the left, it will touch the septum [carpet]. The septum divides the right and left nostrils. It is called the [septum].
If you turn the finger towards you, it touches the floor [carpet] of the nostril [at the posterior wall of the nasal cavity].
If the finger is fully inserted, the top of the finger will touch the roof of the nostril. At the bottom of the nostril is the gate of the nostril.
There is a floor carpet, membrane carpet, and septum carpet of the nostril…. The carpet is the thick part covered by hair. The hair filters the air, preventing the grosser dust from entering. The turbines of the nostrils makes the air [suitable] for the lungs. The temperature and humidity are regulated to makes the air [suitable] for the lungs — the outside air humidity can vary between 10% and 100%….
Prana Kriya — Flow of Ten Rivers of Vowels +14.20
Embarking on prana kriya, appreciate how marvelous the nostrils are…. Inhale a slower, thinner, finer, softer, and deeper conditioned inhalation. Inhalation can be in stages. Since it is fine and thin, it won’t be like a stream of [poured] oil, but more wavy….
Silently utter a (“uh”) [as in uncle] as you inhale. Watch the interaction of the inbreath with the nose. Where does the a (“uh”) river touch at the beginning of the inhalation, and how does it flow…? Where is its source, course, and mouth where the inhalation ends…? Where does the a (“uh”) river touch the nostrils. What is the interaction of the inbreath and the nostrils? Which specific part of the nose does it touch?
Go for the aa (ã = “ah”) inhalation in the following cycles. Aa as in father. The touch point for your inbreath will differ significantly. Therefore it will flow in a different channel. It will reach a different terminal point. The source, course, and mouth of the aa river differ from the a river. Compare the differences of the touch points, passages, and flows.
Then comes the river ee (î), as in sweet, or in sweep — the long e (ê). There will be a significant difference.
The breath has different designs, passages, and flows. Therefore it will reach the terminal in a different way. Comparing the a, aa, and ee, the nostril becomes a musical instrument that channels the breath differently.
Let’s go to the next vowel, which is oo (û), as in fool, or swoon. The flow of the aerodynamics and passages change with the change of vowels.
The nostrils are a marvelous instrument of pranayama and prana kriya. Prana kriya is a fundamental and rudimentary aspect of pranayama. The sound forms. These are called the matrkas (divine mothers) in the mantra shastras (texts on mantra). Pranayama takes recourse to the prana kriya.
The next vowel is ay (e), as in angel. The inhalation has a different touch point and a different channel. It should be a slower, softer, and deeper inhalation. Compare it to the other vowels to clarify how the nostril almost becomes a musical instrument, playing the music of the breath. Pranayama is considered a nada sadhana (sound practice). The nada changes the scheme of your inbreath.
The next vowel is y (ai), as in cycle [or aisle]. The touch point changes.
These are all prana nadis (channels). You can identify an enormous number of prana nadis in the nostrils through which the pranayama breath flows. Your mechanical, or even voluntary, breath doesn’t flow that way. It doesn’t follow the same scheme…. In pranayama you are able to channel it through the prana kriya. That’s why it is called pranayama and not shvasayama (breath control).
The next vowel is o, [as in low]…. It touches different parts of the nostrils — the membrane, septum, floor, roof, and gate. The breath is channeled differently by the various prana kriyas.
Then au, [as in owl]. The touch point in the nostril changes every time the sound form changes. It takes recourse to a different channel…, therefore a different river.
Then comes am [as in umbrella].
The last one is aha [as in ahoy, aha!]. These ten long vowels are ten rivers…. The breath should be considered a river in pranayama. The ten rivers originating from… the [nose] have ten different courses and channels, and terminate differently.
Prana Kriya — 335 Combinations From A to Ksha +22.20
If you recall, I told you that there are 350 touch points, prana nadis (channels) in each nostril…. We just took recourse to the ten [long] vowels to introduce us to the ten rivers.
There are many different rivers of the [consonant] k (guttural) class, ch (palatal) class, th (cerebral/retroflex) class, t (dental) class, p (labial) class, the y (semi-vowel) class [and the s (sibilant) and h (aspirate) class]. [The consonants are:] ka, kha, ga, gha, nga; cha, chha, ja jha, ña; ta, tha, da, dha, na; ta, tha, da, dha, na; pa, pha, ba, bha, ma; ya, ra, la, va; sha, sha, sa; ha. Nearly 35. If you combine each with the ten vowels, such as ka, ki, ku, koo, kai, kau, kah… each breath will go through a different prana nadi.
The nostril is a marvelous organ. We need to develop the sensitivity, brushing the nasal organ with the prana kriyas, from a to kshah (commensurate with A to Z). The last letter in the vernacular (alphabet) is ksha, kshaa, kshi, kshii…. There are many passages…, an enormous pranic network available in the nostrils.
By the by…, the Akshamalika Upanishad (ca. post-1100 C.E.) explains the manifestations of the devis (goddesses) in the unfolding of the universe.
Each letter, from a to ksha, manifests in this boundless universe. It expands to fifteen million light years. The enormous manifestation in the universe is because of these sound forms. The primary deity is Adi-devi, or Adi-maya. The prana is the manifestation of the devi within us…. That’s why I introduced you to the pranamaya kosha.
The sound forms are actually nada (sacred sound):
nada rupo smrto brahmah nada-rupo janardanah |
nada rupa para-shaktir tasma-nada-atmakam jagat || [untraced]
This verse has an enormous purport. Pranayama is related to nada sadhana (sacred sound practice)…. The nostril is designed for pranayama, not for the inbreath, outbreath, and perception of smell as understood by modern man. It has an enormous purpose in pranayama. It is the archetype for the pranayamic act…, whereas we are only using it for shvasayama (breath control).
It is unfortunate that we are [missing] the importance of this potent organ for the meager purposes of merely breathing and living… for the nonsense of life. An honest assessment of our lives [would reveal] we are living for the nonsense of life. It doesn’t make [much] sense… if… left to the karma daivatas (accidents of karma). We make many blunders in life….
I gave you a little glimpse of this marvelous archetypal organ through a very basic, fundamental act. You can try all these sound forms for the nostril. You must be aware of the svara vyanjana (vowel consonant) combinations. You get nearly 335 combinations from a to ksha.
You can use two [vowel] combinations: inhaling with a-aa (ã), a-ee (ê), a-oo (û), a-ay (e)…, and so on and so forth.
Nama Kriya — Each Mantra Alters Flow of Breath +29.30
You can also use the breath for nama kriya (name of deity act).
[Westerners] ask why there are 330 million deities in the Vedic pantheon, and why are there countless names for each deity. Almost all deities that are worshipped have sahasra nama (one thousand-one names) — Vishnu sahasra nama, Rama sahasra nama, Krshna sahasra nama, Ganesha sahasra nama, Datta sahasra nama, Shiva sahasra nama, Shakti sahasra nama, Lakshmi sahasra nama, Saraswati sahasra nama. Each deity worthy of worship has sahasra nama.
Why are there so many names? A deity like Krshna has so many names — Achyuta, Ananta, Govinda, Keshava, Madhava, Narayana, and Vamana…. There are so many names because of… the pranic dimension of human anatomy and physiology. The nostrils will work for so many namas.
If you are a devotee of Ganesha, first try to understand the various names given to Ganesha, such as Vinayaka, Ganaraya…. If you start using each name for each breath, your breathing will change.
You [have heard of] the Vishnu sahasra nama, the thousand-one names of Vishnu. We know the more popular sixteen names of Vishnu, starting with Achyuta, Ananta, Govinda, Keshava, Madhava, and Vamana. Start using these names for each breath. You will see the marvel that works to culture, and address, the pranamaya kosha. That is why we have so many namas. It is because our embodiment is constituted of the pranamaya kosha. A single nama will not work comprehensively and profoundly. That’s why one deity has so many names.
Even if you look at the Mantra Rahasya, you will [wonder] why Narayana has so many names. Each has a different vibration. Although [all] the deities are one, the mantra shastris (learned men that teach mantra) specify which mantra to utter, and when. You can get information about this in the Mantra Rahasya.
When you use these namas — Rama, Krshna, Govinda, Achyuta, Ananta, Narayana, Shrinivasa — the functions, processes, and courses of flow of breath will differ. That is how to [learn] about the profundity of the pranamaya kosha. Its network is on an astronomical scale, as immeasurable as is the universe. That’s why so many namas come in the religious consciousness of yoga.
This has been a primary-level introduction to the nostrils. Today you only tried the inbreath, but you can try the inbreath and outbreath to learn how the vowels, consonants, and matrkas (divine mothers) work differently for the breath.
Kumbhakas (retentions) will also correspond to that. When you retain the inbreath, you retain the way it has been taken in. You retain the breath after the outbreath has [terminated] in the same way the outbreath has taken place.
There are many ways to [take] in the inbreath and [expel] the outbreath by prana kriya and nama kriya. Therefore there will be many kinds of inhalation, exhalation, inner retention, and outer retention…. Carry out the necessary field work to understand the marvel of this [nostril] in the prana kriya and pranayama process. Otherwise [sarcastically:]… you [may] just want a well-shaped nostril… that adds to your beauty.
Nostrils Contribute to Voice +35.30
Let me [add] one more point. The nostrils vitally contribute to the voice. We appreciate the sonorous, celestial voice of a masterful singer…. Although we identify the voice with the throat, it depends on the nostrils as well. Our voice changes when we have a cold or a runny nose. Upon hearing our voice, anyone can know that we have a cold.
The human nose is a major organ of voice and sound production…, but nobody recognizes that the nostrils, not just the throat, contribute to a sweet voice…. As a student of pranayama you will come to know that.
That was a beginner-level introduction to how the nostrils are a major instrument for pranayama.
Pranayama Mudra +37.00
Yesterday I said that the digital pranayama, with the fingers on the nostrils, has become a mark of pranayama. There is a long journey before you [place] your fingers on the nostrils. It [requires] an understanding of the nasal roles and potentials….
Once you realize that the nostril is a very versatile organ, and a maestro, using the fingers on the nose will become a much more difficult proposition… than blocking the nose, inhaling on the right, blocking the right and exhaling on the left. I suggest one should not dabble with nasal pranayama. There is a [lot] to explore [first]….
When you are qualified to do it, I told you how to place the fingers of the right hand using the Pranayama Mudra. Never use the left hand [just] for variety because you will disturb the tantric circuit of the nostrils and hand. Use only the thumb, ring finger and small finger of the right hand. That is called the Pranayama Mudra. Don’t try it with other fingers. Look into how to use the Pranayama Mudra in Light on Pranayama….
Kriya — List of Seventy +38.50
Yesterday, in a passing reference, I stated that there are 70-odd (shvasa) kriyas. [Although] there are ashtadasha (eighteen) maha (great) kriyas in asana…, you say that is too [many]. Here, there are nearly 70 on a gross plane. I will just give you the nomenclature today, listing them….
The first is [prarambha] (commencement) kriya. Today you started with nasal awareness, interaction between the breath and nostrils. That’s called 1) prarambha (commencement) kriya. Then there is 2) shvasa kriya, the act of the inbreath; 3) ushvasa kriya, the act of the outbreath; 4) shvasana kriya, both the inbreath and outbreath; 5) antara stambhana kriya; and 6) bahir stambhana kriya that are [internal and external] retention kriyas.
Then, for yogis, there are 7) puraka kriya (inhalation); 8) rechaka kriya (exhalation); 9) antara kumbhaka (internal retention) kriya; 10) bahya kumbhaka (external retention) kriya; 10) kevala kumbhaka (sole retention) kriya.
Then there are 11) pancha vayu (five airs) kriyas; 12) prana kriya; 13) pancha prana (five prana) kriyas.
Then 14) uddiyana mudra (abdominal suction) kriya, which is integral to the pranayamic process; 15) mulabandha mudra (post-exhalation root lock in kumbhaka) kriya, which is, again, integral to the pranayamic process; 16) jalandhara mudra (chin lock) kriya, which is, again, integral to the pranayamic process.
Then there is 17) agnisara (abdominal digestion) kriya; and 18) kapalabhati (abdominal) kriya. We have just [listed] the nomenclature of 18 kriyas.
[The next 10 elemental kriyas are:] 19) prthvi (earth) prana kriya; 20) prthvi (earth) tattva kriya; 21) ap (water) prana kriya; 22) ap (water) tattva kriya; 23) tejas (fire) prana kriya; 24) tejas (fire) tattva kriya; 25) vayu (air) prana kriya; 26) vayu (air) tattva kriya; 27) akasha (space) prana kriya; 28) akasha (space) tattva kriya….
Commencing from the 29th, [the next 12 chakra kriyas are:] 29) muladhara prana kriya; 30) muladhara tattva kriya; 31) svadishthana prana kriya; 32) svadishthana tattva kriya; 33) manipuraka prana kriya; 34) manipuraka tattva kriya; 35) anahata prana kriya; 36) anahata tattva kriya; 37) ajna prana kriya; 38) ajna tattva kriya; then 39) shat chakra prana kriya; 40) shat chakra tattva kriya. Now we have reached 40.
Then, according to Patanjali’s scheme [PYS II.50], 41) desha (place) paridrshta (regulation) kriya. Again, it is a set… because there are so many [possible] locations. Then, 42) kala (duration) paridrshta (regulation) kriya; 43) samkhya (count) paridrshta (regulation) kriya. In the last session I explained about desha paridrshta (regulation), kala paridrshta (regulation), and samkhya (count) paridrshta (regulation)….
Then comes [nadi kriya:] 44) ida (left) nadi kriya; 45) pingala (right) nadi kriya; 46) shunya (void: central) nadi kriya of the nostrils.
Then there are [the pranayama-named kriyas]: 47) ujjayi kriya; 48) viloma sarpila kriya.
Then there are a cluster of aerodynamic kriyas. There are many graphic modulations of the breath. Each graphic modulation is a kind of kriya. It is a cluster of kriyas: 49) akrti kriya.
Again, these are all clusters [of pranayama kriyas]: 50) anuloma-pratiloma kriya; 51) surya bhedana-chandra bhedana kriya. That’s why I said it is the basic 70 [group of kriyas]. 52) nadi shodhana kriya. Nadi shodhana is a popular and efficacious pranayama. Then 53) sheetali / sheetakari kriya, with kaki (curled tongue like crow beak) mudra; 54) bhramari kriya; 55) [matrka kriya] / mantra-prayoga kriya; 56) pranava (AUM) kriya; 57) nama-prayoga kriya; 58) pratyahara kriya; 59) chitta-laya (absorption) kriya. These are all aspects of pranayama. These effects must be actualized on the mental plane.
Then the 66) gunatita kriya (one who has surpassed the gunas) in the fourteenth chapter of the Bhagavad Gita. Then 67) yoga-vrtti kriya that is in the eighteenth chapter of the Bhagavad Gita. 68) bhakti-vrtti kriya that is in the twelfth chapter of the Bhagavad Gita. And 69) prana-yajna kriya that is in the fifth chapter of the Bhagavad Gita.
These are all clusters…. It implies a lot of work — education, guidance, observation, and field work…. This is done in the classical approach, [but] omitted in consumerist yoga. It won’t bear the fruits that the science of yoga speaks about if you take [shortcuts].
We conclude this session with the mention of the 70-odd shvasa kriyas in pranayama in this compressed [format]…. [Expand upon] it… [to increase] your comprehension. It covers an enormous scope of lab psychology, experimental, and observational processes. There is much to study.
Pranayama — the Gateway to Yogic Dhyana +46.10
As I have been saying, yoga is not something to be done and accomplished. There is a lot to learn about yoga through yoga itself…, and not just through books. We will end today’s session with that.
We will continue to study pranayama, and how it leads to dhyana. I promised I would speak about the yogic process of dhyana. I did not delineate on that earlier, because I wanted to convey this important material to you first. Then you will be able to understand the third kind of dhyana in Patanjali’s scheme, which is the seventh limb of ashtanga yoga.
We will [examine] how pranayama leads up to the dharana, dhyana and samadhi of ashtanga yoga…. Pranayama is the corridor that leads to the antaranga (internal quest) of yoga, the quintessential aspect of yoga, which is comprised dharana, dhyana and samadhi.
We have yet to travel some distance in pranayama… to open up the portal to understand the dhyana, the seventh limb of ashtanga yoga.
 the nostrils are presided over by the Ashvini Kumaras…, the divine physicians of the gods: See Ashvini “Kumara Physicians Reside at the Gates of the Nostrils +22.50,” Lesson 27: Pranamaya Kosha—Five Pranas 6-27-20 .
 The breath is [warmed] to the body temperature… in a split second even if the temperature outside is below zero: See “Breath — Refined & Transformed by Nostrils +17.55,” Lesson 27: Pranamaya Kosha—Five Pranas 6-27-20 .
 It is called the [septum]: Prashant mistakenly called it the membrane.
 I told you that there are 350 touch points, prana nadis (channels) in each nostril: See “Pranayama — Nadis are not Nostrils +38.50,” Lesson 32: Pranayama—Desha Kala Samkhya Regulation 8-14-20 .
 the [consonant] k (guttural) class, ch (palatal) class, th (cerebral/retroflex) class, t (dental) class, p (labial) class, the y (semi-vowel) class [and the s (sibilant) and h (aspirate) class]: The seven classes of Sanskrit consonants are arranged consecutively, ascending from the throat to the lips, then ending with the semi-vowels, tongued, and aspirated classes. This parallels the sequence of vowel sounds. For instance, AUM begins in the throat and terminates in the lips, incorporating all of the vowel sounds, thus implying all possible sound and all existence. See “Hints on Transliteration and Pronunciation” in B.K.S. Iyengar, Light on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, HarperCollins, San Francisco, 1993. P.xv-xvi.
 [The consonants are:] ka, kha, ga, gha, nga; cha, chha, ja jha, ña; ta, tha, da, dha, na; ta, tha, da, dha, na; pa, pha, ba, bha, ma; ya, ra, la, va; sha, sha, sa; ha: The inability to reproduce diacritical marks obscures the differences between these phonemes (sound units). There are approximately 48 phonemes in Sanskrit. By comparison, there are 44 phonemes in English, but only 26 characters. Although Sanskrit uses some sounds not in English, Sanskrit only has several more phonemes than English, while twice the number of characters. That means each English character must represent multiple phonemes. Note also that the short-a in ka is pronounced kuh, etc.
 the prana kriyas, from a to kshah (commensurate with A to Z): The Sanskrit alphabet, represented from a to kshah, is comprised of indestructible energy forms (akshara-s), which makes them suitable for prana kriya. This indestructible nature implies that it could not have been created by man, and, thus, is of a divine nature. See “Sahasrara Chakra — Comprised of All Aksharas (Energy Forms) +03.25,” Lesson 27: Pranamaya Kosha—Five Pranas 6-27-20 .
 the Akshamalika Upanishad (ca. post-1100 C.E.) explains the manifestations of the devis (goddesses) in the unfolding of the universe: The Akshamala Upanishad is one of fourteen Shaivite Upanishads associated with the Rig Veda. The akshamala denotes a string made up of 108 mala beads where each bead represents one of the 50 letters of the alphabet, a to ksha. First mentioned in “Pranayama Takes Recourse To Sound +34.00,” Lesson 18: Vachika Kriya (Part 2) .
 The prana is the manifestation of the devi within us…. That’s why I introduced you to the pranamaya kosha: The adhidaivika aspect refers to the gods (devas) residing within us, which allows us to function as human beings. This is why the chitta and indriyas (senses) are celestial organs: Indeed, the word indiya itself is derived from Lord Indra, king of the gods. Prana is the food for these celestial forces. As such, the pranamaya kosha is comprised of the five pranas and six chakras. See “Pranamaya Kosha — Prana Feeds Celestial Forces Within +39.20,” Lesson 25: Pranayama (Part 3) 6-20-20 .
 nada rupo smrto brahmah nada-rupo janardanah | nada rupa para-shaktir tasma-nada-atmakam jagat: While unable to find a translation or source, it seems to say that the nada (sacred sound) of aum is the form (rupa) of Brahman, comprising the nature (atmaka) of existence in the universe (jagat), which is the ultimate creation (para-shakti) preserved through Vishnu (janardana) . One reference was found: “This notion of nada brahman was passed on in later Vaishnava works.” [Sharma, Prem Lata, “Brihadeshi of Matanga,” Indian Music Journal 6 (1970) 54–58; 7 (1971) 56–66.]
 look at the Mantra Rahasya: Apparently it is a class of works that include the Mantra Rahasya-prakashika, aka the Mantra Bhagavata (ca. 1675 C.E. life story of Krshna) by Nilakantha Chaturdhara. Nilakantha Chaturdhara is best known for his Bharata-bhavadipa commentary on the Mahabharata. Nilakantha’s “Mantra Rahasya works… [are] one example of a late development in the story of how Vedic mantras came to be preserved, transmitted, interpreted and used…. Nilakantha Caturdhara, son of Govinda Suri and Phullambika, was a Marathi-speaking Brahmin of the Gotama gotra (sagely lineage) who flourished in the second half of the 17th century, in what is now the Ahmadnagar district of Maharashtra (northeast of Pune). Nilakantha… moved to Banares (now called Varanasi, a sacred city of the Ganges), where he undertook the study of Veda and Vedanga, Mimamsa, Shrauta, Yoga, Shaiva texts, Tarka, and especially Advaita Vedanta.” [Christopher Z. Minkowski http://dsal.uchicago.edu/sanskrit/papers/minkowski_nilakantha.pdf Retrieved 6-14-21.]
 Yesterday I said that the digital pranayama, with the fingers on the nostrils, has become a mark of pranayama: See “Ida & Pingala Nadi Pranayama +38.55,” Lesson 29: Pranayama — Vehicle of Prana Shakti 7-10-20 .
 I told you how to place the fingers of the right hand using the Pranayama Mudra: See “Pranayama Mudra +36.35,” Lesson 29: Pranayama — Vehicle of Prana Shakti 7-10-20; “Pranayama Mudra,” Lesson 30: Breath Circulation in Asana 7-17-20; “Pranayama Mudra +46.15,” Lesson 32: Pranayama—Desha Kala Samkhya Regulation 8-14-20.
 there are 70-odd (shvasa) kriyas: They are listed in Prashant S. Iyengar, Pranayama: A Classical and Traditional Approach, New Delhi: New Age Books, 2016. P. 287-9
 The 70 kriyas are listed in Prashant S. Iyengar, Pranayama: A Classical and Traditional Approach, 2016. P. 287-9.
 according to Patanjali’s scheme [PYS II.50]: Pranayama has three movements (vrttis): prolonged (dirgha) and fine (sukshma) inhalation (abhyantara), exhalation (bahya) and (stable) retention (stambha vrtti); (all) regulated (paridrshta) with precision (samkhya) according to duration (kala) and place (desha; also referring scope and breadth). [PYS II.50]
 I explained about desha paridrshta (regulation), kala paridrshta (regulation), and samkhya (count) paridrshta (regulation): See “Pranayama Differs From Shvasayama — Desha Kala Samkhya Paridrshtah +07.50,” Lesson 32: Desha Kala Samkhya Regulation 8-14-20 .
 gunatita kriya (one who has surpassed the gunas) in the fourteenth chapter of the Bhagavad Gita: At the conclusion of the Bhagavad Gita 14 discussion of the three gunas, Arjuna asks how one who has transcended the gunas — a gunatita — behaves [BG 14.21]: He neither is repelled by (dvesha), nor wishes for, illumination, activity, or delusion (prakasha, pravrtti, moha) — epithets for the trigunas [BG 14.22]. Knowing that it is only the gunas working (vartante, from √vrt “to operate,” which is also the root of vrtti), he remains firm (from √stha “to stand”) [BG 14.23]. He remains the same (sama) in duhkha (pain) and sukha (pleasure), loved (priya) or unloved (apriya)… [BG 14.23]. He is impartial towards friend and foe, renouncing all undertakings (sarva-arambha-parityagi) [BG 14.25]. Thus, this lack of desire allows him to remain non-attached.
 yoga-vrtti kriya that is in the eighteenth chapter of the Bhagavad Gita: In Bhagavad Gita 18, titled Liberation in Renunciation, after first discussing knowledge, action and agency, Lord Krshna advises that manas (mind), prana, and the indriyas (sense organs) must be “held fast” or “regulated” (dhrtya… dharayate) through unswerving sattvic yoga practice [BG 18.33]. After intense yoga dhyana, one becomes fit to attain Brahman [BG 18.51-53]: Endowed with a pure (vishuddha) buddhi (intelligence), niyama self-control, having abandoned (tyaktva) objects (vishayas) of the senses, raga (attachment), and dvesha (aversion); observing yama (restraint) of vacha (speech) – kaya (body) – manasa (mind), devoted to yoga dhyana and possessed of vairagya (detachment); forsaking possessions (parigraha), unselfish, and peaceful (shanta), one is fit to attain Brahman.
 bhakti-vrtti kriya that is in the twelfth chapter of the Bhagavad Gita: In Bhagavad Gita 12, on bhakti (devotion), Lord Krshna has stated that there are two paths to attain liberation from death and samsara (transmigration) [BG 12.2-9]: 1) Yogic faith (shraddha) in God; and 2) control of the indriyas (sense organs) and even-mindedness (sama-buddhaya).
 prana-yajna kriya that is in the fifth chapter of the Bhagavad Gita: The Bhagavad Gita 5 chapter on renunciation states that imperishable (akshaya) sukham (joy) comes from union with Brahman through yoga, not contact (sparsha) with bhoga (worldly pleasure) that leads to duhkha (pain) [BG 5.21-2]. Sukham (joy) is derived from discipline in Yoga, not the agitation that arises out of kama (desire) and krodha (anger) [BG 5.23]. Released (viyuktanam) from kama and krodha, knowing the atman (Self), Brahman is near [BG 5.25]. Shutting off contact (sparsha) with external objects, equalizing prana and apana within the inner (abhyantara) nose (nasa), the sage (muni) who is free of iccha (desire), bahya (fear), and krodha (anger) attains moksha (liberation), the supreme goal [BG 5.22-8].
 I have been saying, yoga is not something to be done and accomplished: See “Exhalation Driven from Brain to Pelvis, Regulated by Desha +33.55,” Lesson 31: Pranayama is Driven, Not Done 8-1-20 .
 I promised I would speak about the yogic process of dhyana: See “Three Types of Dhyana—Review,” Lesson 14: Dhyana Serves Embodiment 5-17-20.